Tại sao network của WordPress lại nhanh như vậy?

Tại sao network của WordPress lại nhanh như vậy?

 

Vâng, đó là câu hỏi của tôi khi vào 1 số trang sử dụng hạ tầng mạng của WordPress blog.

Câu trả lời nằm ở độ trễ siêu nhỏ, qua rất ít các route của WordPress. 🙂

Hãy cùng xem thử 1 IP điển hình thuộc sở hữu WordPress

λ tracert i0.wp.com

Tracing route to i0.wp.com [192.0.77.2]
over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 4 ms 3 ms 3 ms 192.168.11.1
2 2 ms 10 ms 1 ms 192.168.1.1
3 18 ms 9 ms 10 ms 118.69.255.252
4 7 ms 3 ms 6 ms 118.69.167.60
5 2 ms 6 ms 2 ms 42.117.11.158
6 3 ms 28 ms 39 ms 118.69.131.230
7 36 ms 38 ms 37 ms 118.70.2.169
8 41 ms 44 ms 193 ms automattic1-10g.hkix.net [123.255.90.71]
9 79 ms 39 ms 56 ms i2.wp.com [192.0.77.2]

Trace complete.

IP AnyCast được route về Hồng Kông với nhà mạng hkix.net tối ưu hóa cho các visitor từ Vietnam

automattic1-10g.hkix.net

192.0.77.2 What the phước? 1 trong số các IP modem huyền thoại đây sao 192.168.0.1

Ồ không 🙂

Private IPv4 address spaces

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has directed the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) to reserve the following IPv4 address ranges for private networks:[1]

RFC1918 name IP address range number of addresses largest CIDR block (subnet mask) host id size mask bits classful description[Note 1]
24-bit block 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 16,777,216 10.0.0.0/8 (255.0.0.0) 24 bits 8 bits single class A network
20-bit block 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255 1,048,576 172.16.0.0/12 (255.240.0.0) 20 bits 12 bits 16 contiguous class B networks
16-bit block 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255 65,536 192.168.0.0/16 (255.255.0.0) 16 bits 16 bits 256 contiguous class C networks

IPv4 reserved ở đây cơ

IPv4

Address block (CIDR) Range Number of addresses Scope Purpose
0.0.0.0/8 0.0.0.0 –
0.255.255.255
4,294,967,296 Software Used for broadcast messages to the current (“this”)[1]
10.0.0.0/8 10.0.0.0 –
10.255.255.255
16,777,216 Private network Used for local communications within a private network[2]
100.64.0.0/10 100.64.0.0 –
100.127.255.255
4,194,304 Private network Used for communications between a service provider and its subscribers when using a carrier-grade NAT[3]
127.0.0.0/8 127.0.0.0 –
127.255.255.255
16,777,216 Host Used for loopback addresses to the local host[4]
169.254.0.0/16 169.254.0.0 –
169.254.255.255
65,536 Subnet Used for link-local addresses between two hosts on a single link when no IP address is otherwise specified, such as would have normally been retrieved from a DHCP server[5]
172.16.0.0/12 172.16.0.0 –
172.31.255.255
1,048,576 Private network Used for local communications within a private network[2]
192.0.0.0/24 192.0.0.0 –
192.0.0.255
256 Private network Used for the IANA IPv4 Special Purpose Address Registry[6]
192.0.2.0/24 192.0.2.0 –
192.0.2.255
256 Documentation Assigned as “TEST-NET-1” for use in documentation and examples. It should not be used publicly.[7]
192.88.99.0/24 192.88.99.0 –
192.88.99.255
256 Internet Used by 6to4 anycast relays (deprecated)[8]
192.168.0.0/16 192.168.0.0 –
192.168.255.255
65,536 Private network Used for local communications within a private network[2]
198.18.0.0/15 198.18.0.0 –
198.19.255.255
131,072 Private network Used for testing of inter-network communications between two separate subnets[9]
198.51.100.0/24 198.51.100.0 –
198.51.100.255
256 Documentation Assigned as “TEST-NET-2” for use in documentation and examples. It should not be used publicly.[7]
203.0.113.0/24 203.0.113.0 –
203.0.113.255
256 Documentation Assigned as “TEST-NET-3” for use in documentation and examples. It should not be used publicly.[7]
224.0.0.0/4 224.0.0.0 –
239.255.255.255
268,435,456 Internet Reserved for multicast[10]
240.0.0.0/4 240.0.0.0 –
255.255.255.254
268,435,456 Internet Reserved for future use[11]
255.255.255.255/32 255.255.255.255 1 Subnet Reserved for the “limited broadcast” destination address[11]

Tuy nhiên để có được IP trong dải 192 này thì cũng phải là thứ dữ mới lấy được, kiểu như biển số đẹp ở Vietnam vậy 🙂

Có thể kể đến ICANN – 1 trong những nhà quản lý và đặt ra luật lệ cho mọi tên miền – cũng đang sở hữu những IP trong dải 192 huyền thoại kia

λ tracert 192.0.32.53

Tracing route to whois.icann.org [192.0.32.53]
over a maximum of 30 hops:

1 1 ms 1 ms 2 ms 192.168.11.1
2 1 ms 2 ms 1 ms 192.168.1.1
3 5 ms 23 ms 4 ms 118.69.255.252
4 4 ms 6 ms 11 ms 118.69.167.60
5 19 ms 17 ms 91 ms 118.69.132.169
6 66 ms 72 ms 73 ms 118.70.1.101
7 98 ms 81 ms 85 ms xe-5-0-0.tyo.cw.net [195.89.100.181]
8 93 ms 94 ms 95 ms ae-25.r01.tokyjp05.jp.bb.gin.ntt.net [117.103.177.97]
9 91 ms 88 ms 94 ms ae-7.r31.tokyjp05.jp.bb.gin.ntt.net [129.250.7.88]
10 183 ms 186 ms 181 ms ae-4.r23.lsanca07.us.bb.gin.ntt.net [129.250.3.193]
11 206 ms 246 ms 178 ms ae-5.r01.lsanca20.us.bb.gin.ntt.net [129.250.6.49]
12 187 ms 178 ms 194 ms ge-100-0-0-16.r01.lsanca20.us.ce.gin.ntt.net [204.1.254.150]
13 179 ms 180 ms 180 ms whois.icann.org [192.0.32.53]

List IP của automattic.com – công ty sở hữu WordPress

ASN

AS2635

Allocated

2012-10-01

Registry

arin

Related Domain

automattic.com

IP Addresses

23,296

Country
United States

Whois Details

ASHandle:       AS2635
OrgID:          AUTOM-93
ASName:         AUTOMATTIC
ASNumber:       2635
RegDate:        2012-10-01
Updated:        2012-10-01
Source:         ARIN


OrgID:          AUTOM-93
OrgName:        Automattic, Inc
CanAllocate:    
Street:         60 29th Street #343
City:           San Francisco
State/Prov:     CA
Country:        US
PostalCode:     94110
RegDate:        2011-10-05
Updated:        2013-11-01
OrgAbuseHandle: ABUSE3970-ARIN
OrgNOCHandle:   NOC12276-ARIN
OrgAdminHandle: NOC12276-ARIN
OrgTechHandle:  NOC12276-ARIN
Source:         ARIN

 

Netblock Description Num IPs
103.62.32.0/24 Ausomattic Pty Ltd 256
103.62.33.0/24 Ausomattic Pty Ltd 256
103.62.34.0/24 Ausomattic Pty Ltd 256
103.62.35.0/24 Ausomattic Pty Ltd 256
185.138.28.0/24 Automattic INC 256
185.138.29.0/24 Automattic INC 256
185.138.30.0/24 Automattic INC 256
185.138.31.0/24 Automattic INC 256
185.64.140.0/24 Automattic Network Infrastructure 256
185.64.141.0/24 Automattic Network Infrastructure 256

 

Netblock Description
2001:43f8:bf0::/48 Bubblestorm Management (Pty) Ltd
2403:6b80:1::/48 Ausomattic Pty Ltd
2403:6b80:2::/48 Ausomattic Pty Ltd
2403:6b80:3::/48 Ausomattic Pty Ltd
2403:6b80:4::/48 Ausomattic Pty Ltd
2403:6b80::/48 Ausomattic Pty Ltd
2403:6b80:ffff::/48 Ausomattic Pty Ltd
2620:115:c000::/48 Automattic, Inc
2620:115:c001::/48 Automattic, Inc
2620:115:c002::/48 Automattic, Inc

IPv4 vs IPv6

….

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